GHAZAN KHAN 191 same Turks, whose rise dates from this period, were destined to capture Byzantium and to hold in subjection provinces of Europe. With the Western states of Europe Ghazan maintained the friendly relations which he had inherited, and letters similar in tenor to those already mentioned are preserved in the archives of various powers. The fact that Egypt, the representative Moslem power, was his chief enemy, strengthened the belief that at heart he was a Christian, or, at any rate, had Christian sympathies. During his reign Edward I. of England accredited Geoffrey de Langley, who was accompanied by two esquires, to the Persian Court. The original roll of their itinerary is extant,1 and also an account of their expenditure, which included purchases of silver plate, fur pelisses, and carpets. They travelled by way of Genoa to Trebizond and Tabriz, and returned home with a leopard in a cage- No other account of their mission has been preserved. His Reforms.—When 'Ghazan Khan came to the throne, he found the revenue .so corruptly administered that practically nothing reached the central government, with the result that he was unable to give pay, much less presents, to his army. At the same time the peasantry were so ground down by illegal and semi-illegal exactions that they were deserting their villages, and whenever an official appeared they took refuge in underground hiding- places. To remove this fundamental abuse a survey of all property was instituted, and on this a new system of taxation was based, each village paying its taxes in two instalments and knowing exactly what the amount was. All assignations on revenue—a cause of endless corrup- tion—and all other irregular taxes or tolls were forbidden on pain of death, and in order to prevent the tax-collectors from deceiving the peasantry each village was obliged to post a copy of the order, with details of its taxes, outside the mosque. Another abuse was that all government officials and other great personages not only used the government post-horses but preyed on the country, quartering themselves and their large suites in the towns 1 Archaeological Journal, vol. viii. pp. 49-50.